Unsteady panel method with low-order doublets and sources. The wake is developed by a time-marching technique.
Semi-empirical modeling of the wind loads acting on the suspension lines. The cable elements are considered as slender cylinders in traverse flow, and experimental drag coefficients should specified to match the real behaviour of the lines.
Specific aerodynamic force functions can be defined for calculating the wind loads on suspended payloads. These functions can be obtained, for example, by fitting experimental data for a range of body attitudes.
Apparent mass effects due to inertia of the air surrounding the parachute are simulated with the model of Lissaman & Brown.